The Maastricht Treaty was signed under the Major Committee in December 1991. On 16 September 1992, Black Wednesday took place, during which the United Kingdom withdrew from the ECM. This event is not only deeply rooted in the memory of older politicians such as the then Finance Minister, Norman Lamont, but also among younger people such as Prime Minister David Cameron, who was then a special adviser to the Minister of Finance. The persistent recession and division within the Conservative Party towards the EU dominated British politics before the 1997 general election, which lost the Conservatives (Ryan, 2016); Kiratli, 2015). Cameron duly forwarded his renegotiation requests to his European partners in November 2015 and, until February 2016, an agreement was reached at the European Council on the four titles of Cameron`s demands (BBC News, 2016) (see Table 2). On 12 June 2020, the UK formally rejected the option of extending its post-Brexit transition period beyond the end of this year, so that businesses had only a few months to prepare for more restrictive trading conditions with the EU. British Cabinet Minister Michael Gove said in talks with Brussels that he had “officially confirmed” the decision and said on Twitter: “On 1 January 2021, we will regain control and regain our political and economic independence” (Brunsden and Payne 2020). The law “probably won`t get along well with the EU,” but Brexit fighters will be delighted because it means that “in a no deal scenario,” Britain “aspires to unchecked sovereignty,” Foster said. 89.The payment of these amounts does not depend on the successful conclusion of negotiations on the future relationship between the UK and the EU. Once the UK and THE EU have concluded the agreement in accordance with Article 50 of the TUE, the UK`s financial obligations will prove to be obligations under international law, regardless of the outcome of future negotiations. (e) the UK`s overseas territories in which the agreement refers to “specific agreements” for their association with the EU.13 Since the beginning of his candidacy, Joe Biden has expressed support for the protection of the Good Friday Agreement and recent developments in negotiations between the EU and the UK have only hardened his resolve. They also appear to have hardened the resolve of other leading Democrats in Congress and, perhaps more importantly, brought to the United States a further review of British policy towards Northern Ireland. Trade negotiations with the United States after Brexit, under each government, will therefore be much more complex.
The added complexity of the border issue on the island of Ireland may be something that the British government may have downplayed, but it would be in the spotlight if a scenario without a Brexit deal were to come true (Stephens, 2020). After an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MEPs ruled that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it refused to give Parliament full legal advice on the consequences of its proposed withdrawal terms.  The focus of the consultation was on the legal effect of the “backstop” agreement for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the CUSTOMS border between the EU and the United Kingdom and its impact on the Good Friday agreement that led to the end of the unrest in Northern Ireland, including whether , according to the proposals, the UK would be certain that it would be able to leave the EU in a practical sense.